Reduce Bladder Cancer
Risk With Vitamins and Minerals
Increased intakes of vitamin E may reduce the risk of bladder
cancer by about 35 per cent, says a new study from an international
team of researchers
Findings published in Cancer Causes and Control also showed that
carotenoids, niacin, thiamine, and vitamin D may reduce the risk
of bladder cancer in older people.
The effects of vitamin E, carotenoids, vitamin D, thiamin,
and niacin in relation to the risk of developing bladder cancer
may warrant further investigation, report the researchers,
led by Maree Brinkman from The Cancer Council Victoria in Australia.
Future studies should focus on optimal doses and combinations
of these micronutrients particularly for high risk groups such
as heavy smokers and older individuals, they state.
Bladder cancer is diagnosed in about 336,000 people every year
worldwide, and it is three times more likely to affect men than
women, according to the European School of Oncology.
Brinkman and her co-workers analysed dietary data from 322 people
with bladder cancer and 239 healthy controls. A 121-item food
frequency questionnaire was used to estimate dietary intakes.
Results showed that, in general, people with the highest average
intakes of vitamin E (at least 193.4 milligrams per day) were
34 per cent less likely to develop bladder cancer. The highest
average intakes of phosphorous (1,557 milligrams) were associated
with a 51 per cent reduction in bladder cancer risk.
Although we observed an approximate 50 per cent reduction
in the odds of bladder cancer associated with higher dietary intake
of phosphorus, it was not statistically significant, wrote
the researchers. Given this ubiquitous micronutrient is
an important physiological component of DNA, RNA, ATP, and cell
membranes, it may be worthy of further consideration.
When the researchers focused their analysis on smokers, they
found that the highest intakes of vitamin E, carotenoids (18 milligrams),
and niacin (46.5 milligrams), were associated with a 42, 38, and
34 per cent reduction in bladder cancer risk in heavy smokers.
In older individuals, the highest average intakes of carotenoids,
vitamin D (641 International Units), thiamin (3.35 milligrams),
niacin, and vitamin E were all associated with a reduced bladder
Bladder cancer is a disease that typically affects older
people, and bioavailability of B-group vitamins may be compromised
in this demographic by certain drugs (e.g., acid lowering agents),
stated the researchers. Additionally, vitamin E, like carotenoids
acts as an antioxidant and, as suggested by our results, could
be more beneficial under conditions of the greatest oxidative
stress such as smoking and ageing.
The researchers called for additional study to further examine
these potentially protective relationships.
The study was supported by the National Institute of Environmental
Health Sciences and the National Cancer Institute at the US National
Institutes of Health (NIH).
Source: Cancer Causes and Control
January 7, 2010