Mushrooms are known for their immune system boosting properties as well as treatments for anxiety and anti-cancer capabilities.
Mushrooms have been successfully used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years to treat many different types of health conditions. Western science and medicine are finally beginning to recognize and utilize some of the medicinally active compounds in mushrooms and elucidate their modes of action.
Grifola frondosa is a polypore mushroom that grows in clusters at the base of trees, particularly oaks. The mushroom is commonly known among English speakers as hen of the woods, hen-of-the-woods, ram's head and sheep's head. It is typically found in late summer to early autumn.
The paper, published in the Pharmaceutical Biology, reveals the potency of certain polysaccharides contained within the mushroom, Griflola frondosa (GF) demonstrating its potential as a safe medical food supplement.
It is well documented that the polysaccharides found in mushrooms are effective antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and antimicrobial agents not found in plants.
Mushrooms can be used as functional foods, and their anti-inflammatory properties may contribute to halting the onset of other disorders such as Alzheimers disease and dementia.
However, research into brain and cognition health effects of mushrooms are in its infancy compared with plant and herbs, which have been more deeply explored and at a more advanced stage.
Clinical evidence suggests that the expression of AMPA receptors is decreased in the brain of patients with depression.
Here, scientists from Yunnan University in China began feeding mice foods containing GF or another type of mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (PO) for either one‚ÄČday or five days.
Mice were randomly assigned to three GF experimental groups: low dose of GF-containing food, medium dose of GF-containing food and high dose of GF-containing food.
The positive control group mice were injected with the antidepressant imipramine, while mice in the negative control group were injected with saline.
After the animals received the GF-containing food for 24 hours, the drugs or vehicle were injected into the body. Next, animal behavioural tests were conducted to further assess the antidepressant effects of GF.
Consumption of GF was found to reduce the immobility time after both one and five days.
The team also found that AMPA-specific blocker GYKI 52466 was able to block the antidepressant effects of the GF-containing food.
"GF is a safe and edible mushroom, but may have fewer side effects than the currently used antidepressants," the studys authors concluded.
"Potentially, patients may just eat GF as a food supplement for the treatment of depression. This discovery also helps to develop effective and safe drugs for the symptoms of major depressive disorder."
GF Study History
This is not the first time GF has been investigated for its medicinal properties. Several polysaccharides purified from GF have demonstrated immune enhancing efficacy.
In addition, a water-insoluble polysaccharide from GF was found to inhibit cell growth resulting in eventual cell death.
In contrast, a specific fraction isolated from GF enhanced, rather than suppressed, the development of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA).
"Whether certain metabolites enhance or suppress immune responses depends on a number of factors, including the polysaccharide, administration route and timing," the authors commented. "Other dependents include their mechanism of action or the site of activity.
"The present data suggest that GF demonstrates stronger antidepressant effects in comparison to PO. This may be due to the differences in the potency of the effective components regulating key biofunctions in the animals."